Examination methods of the man
The main issue regarding the male partner is whether he is producing enough quality, motile and morphologically correct sperm cells
Basic examinations of the man include mainly the sperm count test. Our clinic changed the sperm count test evaluation system in 2015 in order to meet the strict requirements of the World Health Organization. We expanded the examination spectrum, tightened up the laboratory procedures and became a part of the external quality control system. We also care about the male partner.
Sperm Count Test
Microscopic examination of a semen sample revealing potential abnormalities.
If the sperm count assessment is to be of any value it should be performed after 3-4 days of sexual abstinence and semen sample obtained through masturbation should be handed over to the laboratory within 30 minutes from sampling. The laboratory analysis studies the number of sperm cells per 1 ml, their motility and shape of heads, necks and tails (morphology). If semen analysis shows any abnormality it is suitable to repeat the examination after 2 - 3 months, and if abnormalities persist we recommend a consultation with urologist or andrologist (expert physician specialising in male infertility).
|Volume of ejaculate (ml)||1,5||(1,4 – 1,7)|
|Total sperm count (mil/ejaculate)||39||(33 – 46)|
|Sperm concentration (mil/ml)||15||(12 – 16)|
|Total motility (%)||40||(38 – 42)|
|Progressive motility (%)||32||(31 – 34)|
|Vitality (live sperm %)||58||(55 – 63)|
|Morphology (normal forms %)||4||(3,0 – 4,0)|
Genetic testing to explain male infertility
This examination is suitable for men over 45 years with absence of sperm in their ejaculate and in case of repeated miscarriages of the patient, or with risk of congenital disorder or defect.
A. Chromosomal abnormalities
Approximately 5 - 15 % men with serious disorder of quantity or quality of sperm show also abnormalities of their chromosome, which may be diagnosed by analysis from blood - so-called karyotype determination.
B. Microdeletion on the Y chromosome
10 - 20 % of men with serious sperm count disorder (below 2 million per ml), but with normal number of chromosomes (karyotype), are carriers of a defect on the Y chromosome. This type of disorder is called microdeletion and the Y chromosome does not contain some key genes that are responsible for the production and development of sperm. The affected men may carry this defect onto their sons.
C. Cystic fibrosis and congenital atresia of the vas deferens (CAVD)
This disorder occurs only in men with complete absence of sperm in their ejaculate. In men with CAVD it is highly probable that they also carry the gene for cystic fibrosis (CF). Therefore men without any sperm found in their ejaculate it is necessary to perform genetic testing for carrying cystic fibrosis.
Hormonal examination of the man
This examination is sometimes performed in men with low sperm quality.
However, its significance in diagnosing male infertility is limited. It examines levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, which inform about the hormonal background of sperm production.